When you think of medicine, what comes to mind? The Ancient Egyptians may come to mind, but what about the Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and more? All of these cultures practice various types of medicine. What does this have to do with modern medicine? Read on to learn more about how they treat their ailments. What were the benefits of each? Here are some examples. And don’t worry if you’re not familiar with each of these civilizations!
What Are The Types of Medicine
The ancient Egyptians believe in two types of illness and their respective treatments. First, there was irrational medicine based on logical reasoning and the other was magical treatment based on magico-religious beliefs. Second, there were rites to drive out supernatural agents. The latter is thought to have originated with the Greeks, who began practicing rational medicine in the 5th century BCE. These practices are reflected in the medical literature of the ancient Egyptians.
Ancient Egyptian doctors study and reference the works of various scientists, including Avicenna and the Codex Sinai. In fact, they consider their own knowledge of medicine a “necessary art”. Moreover, they were seen as priests of the Per-Ankh, which was a library/school attached to a temple. However, their expertise was considered to be as unique as their patients, which is why Egyptian physicians routinely consult ancient works of medicine.
In addition to medicines, Ancient Egyptians also use dental tools and practices. They ate bread made with bits of rock and sand, so their teeth were quite coarse. They also use bandages and wound dressings, but there is no evidence of deep-body surgery. Nonetheless, there are references to dental instruments and lancets in medical papyri. The ancient Egyptians also knew how to set broken bones.
In the first half of the fifth century B.C.E., Greek doctors start to wonder about the natural causes of diseases and sought natural cures. They also use incantations to heal people and prevent disease. Before 300 B.C.E., the most popular type of medicine was incantations. After Alexander the Great conquered Greece, the Greeks expanded their empire across the Middle East, building Alexandria in Egypt. This city became an enormous center of learning and education. Though the ancient Greeks worshipped a god, science gradually replace belief in gods and goddesses.
The ancient Greeks believe in the power of medicine and credited a number of gods with healing powers. These gods include Apollo, Asclepius, Hera, and Hygea. But the Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 400 B.C.) depart from these divine notions of medicine and began to practice observational medicine, applying the principles of natural science to cure disease.
In ancient Greece, the distinction between the physical and the spiritual worlds was blurred. Patients visit him in dreams and sought advice from the god. Some patients left monuments to show how they want to be treated. The inscriptions reveal the physical and divine causes of their ailments.
The first physicians in ancient Rome were the Greeks, who influence Roman medicine. Some of their methods were based on Greek practices, but they were not uniform. For example, they use different symbols for medicine, such as the caduceus, which represents the god Hermes, as well as Mercury and Azoth. As a result, Roman medicine differs significantly from Greek medicine. But there were some important similarities between Greek and Roman medical practices.
Medical learning became less coveted after the fall of Rome. Experimentation was discouraged, and medical knowledge was passed down in a muddled way to the Christian church, Arab scholars, and the rest of Europe. Some say that the early Christian church actually hinders medical progress. This was because diseases were viewed as punishment for sins and required prayer and repentance. Dissection of the human body was also forbidden. This intolerance towards medicine must have been overshadowed by Christian caregiving.
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Chinese medicine has a long history, spanning more than 2,000 years. It develop during the Tang dynasty, and the most important work in the history of Chinese medicine was written in the sixteenth century by Li Shizen. I wrote an encyclopedia, which was referred to as the Compendium of Materia Medica, which cover 52 volumes. Using this work, Western medicine today can better understand Chinese medicine.
The foundation of traditional Chinese medicine dates back to the Shang Dynasty (1368-1122 BC). Its practitioners believe that illness and disease were the results of the upsetting of the ancestor or demon that enter the body. Although this view is now dated, Chinese medicine has remained an important form of medicine in the world. The development of modern medicine is directly related to the progress of Chinese medicine. However, there are some important differences.
In addition to differences in the name, Chinese people often relate an herb’s efficacy to its shape, name, or figurative concept. While only the root is considered medicinal, ancient Chinese believe that it could bring back the inner energy of an individual. In a modern context, modern medicine is root in scientific drug discovery.
The idea of Evidence-Base Medicine originate in the 1990s when a group of researchers and clinicians call for more reliance on published research and clinical trials as the basis of medical treatment. They develop a hierarchy of evidence, with trial data trumping other forms of evidence, such as mechanistic reasoning and authoritative opinion. This approach gain ideological and managerial support but has since had a rocky history.
Historically, medical studies have focused on treating specific cases and not on the general population. However, modern epidemiology has its roots in social processes in eighteenth and nineteenth-century Europe. The development of probability and statistical methods led to the introduction of general principles to practice. Eventually, doctors applie these tools to individual patients, especially in England and North America. The concept of Evidence-Base Medicine (EBM) is still growing, but its roots are in the past.
Despite the promise of EBM, the approach has face political and managerial criticism. Some have suggested that evidence-based medicine undermines the autonomy of the medical profession. Others have argued that it results in “cookbook” medicine. Similarly, some have argued that it undermines the role of physicians and enables business models to drive the field. And of course, a significant amount of political and social critiques exist, but this debate does not deter the use of evidence-based medicine.
Herbal remedies have been used throughout history. The Ancient Egyptians and the Chinese began to associate herbs with diseases in about 3500 BC. Their knowledge of herbs was documented in books known as herbals. These books often include pictures of the plants and dosage information. Vidalista were use by Egyptians as a natural cure for many illnesses, and many of the herbal treatments of the ancient world were recorded on the Ebers papyrus (1550 BC), a book that contains 700 medicinal formulas. Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine,” develop a system of diagnosis and treatment that include many herbal remedies. He describes the properties of 300 to 400 different species of plants.
There are some risks associated with using herbal medicines for cancer, and some studies suggest that they may be harmful over proven conventional treatments. Oncologists have seen patients with early-stage cancer who chose to take alternative therapies and end up with incurable, metastatic disease. While some people find these treatments appealing, studies show that many patients who begin with herbal therapies eventually abandon conventional treatments and revert to harmful behavior after they start to see results.
The study of Byzantine medicine, from the late Roman period to the fifteenth century, is a neglected field. John Zacharias’ works are largely forgotten and understudied, but a recent monograph by Petros Bouras-Vallianatos outlines the history of Byzantine medicine, its source material, and its audience. This work also offers a useful comparison of Zacharias’ writings to other works on the subject.
Christian devotion plays a major role in Byzantine medicine, with many hospitals in the countryside near churches. These hospitals were built around the idea of healing through salvation, so doctors often pray to their saints for the patients they treated. Christian faith was also an important part of Byzantine medicine history and cure, with doctors requesting prayers for patients when conventional medicine failed. Saints Cosmas and Damian were consider patron saints of medicine, and their intercession was often invoked when a particular cure did not work.
Byzantine medical writers also show an interest in rhinological diseases, and their writings referre to new surgical procedures for the removal of nasal polyps. The first meticulous intranasal surgery for polyp removal was described. The techniques and knowledge learned during this period of medicine were later adopted by the Europeans and the Islamic world. So, the history of Byzantine medicine is incredibly important. You should learn more about its history, cure, and benefits.